General Knowledge in Urdu-Mountains

Mass of land projecting well above its immediate surroundings is mountain. Plate tectonics has shown that mountains are the result of collisions between the plates which form the Earth’s form the Earth’s outer surface layer. Behind while safer rocks surrounding them are worn away. Also some mountains, especially isolated peaks have been elevated above their surroundings because; they are volcanoes, e.g., Mauna Loa in Hawaii or Mount Etna in Italy. There is no fixed boundary at which a hill is regarded as mountain. One criterion is that anything higher than 600 feet above sea level is a mountain but generally a feature is regarded as a mountain if it extends at least 3300 feet above the surrounding land.


Most mountains are groups or ranges. Individual mountains in a range are usually referred to as mounts e.g. Mount Wilson, Mount Everest etc.

Types of Mountains:

Fold Mountains


They arise because the rocks in them have been buckled and crumpled by pressure. Just as a table cloth when pushed along a table wrinkles up into folds, the rocks. Of the earths crust reacts to lateral pressure to form folds. If the pressure is very great, the folds are tightly squeezed into pleats. More pressure sends the pleats rolling over one another. As the pleats rollup, high elevations are formed. Only massive pressures like those resulting from colliding plates can fold and mould rocks into mountains. It is now believed that all big mountains like the Himalayas, the Andes (south America), the Rockies (North America and the Alps (Europe ) were formed by colliding plates. These are fairly young mountains and therefore are called new fold mountains. These have come into being after the continental drift started with the breakup of the supper continent, Pangaea. The old fold mountains were formed in the pr drift era long before the continental masses cave together to form Pangaea. The examples of the type are Aravallis of India, Pennies of Europe and Appalachians of America.

Black Mountains:


They came into being as a result of vertical earth movements along cracks or faults. Such movement is also cause by the pressure generated by plates. When such vertical earth movements leave a black of high elevation standing between two areas of low elevation, the high land area forms a black mountain. Such mountains are usually step side. Examples of the type are Vosges in France, the Black Forest Mountains in West Germany etc.

Volcanic Mountains:

Volcanic mountains are the result of volcanic eruptions when a volcano erupts; the materials that are ejected fall around a hole or crater and build up a mountain. That is roughly conical in shape and has a crater at the top, the examples are; Fujiyama in Japan, Vesuvius in Italy and the Chimborazo and Cotopaxi in South America.

Residual Mountains:

Residual mountains are those which are deeply dissected and reduced by weathering and river action that they stand out as skeletons, for example Catskill mountains of New York(USA)

Highest Mountains in The World

Everest Nepal/Tibet 8,848
K-2 (Godwin Austen) Pakistan 8,611
Kanchenjunga India/Nepal 8,586
Lhotse I Nepal/Tibet 8,516
Makalu I Nepal/Tibet 8,463
Cho Oyu Nepal/Tibet 8,201
Dhaulagiri Nepal 8,167
Manaslu I Nepal 8,163
Nanga Parbat Pakistan 8,125
Annapurna Nepal 8,091
Gasherbrum Pakistan/ China 8,068
Broad Peak Pakistan/ China 8,047
Gosainthan (Shishma Pangma) Tibet 8,046
Gasherbrum II Pakistan/ China 8,035
Annapurna II Nepal 7,937
Gyachung Kang Nepal 7,897
Disteghil Sar Pakistan 7,882
Himalchuli Nepal 7,864
Nuptse Nepal 7,841
Nanda Devi India 7,824
Masherbrum Kashmir 7,821
Rakaposhi Pakistan 7,788
Kanjut Sar Pakistan 7,761
Kamet India/Tibet 7,756
Namcha Barwa Tibet 7,756
Gurla Mandhata Tibet 7,728
Ulugh Muztagh Tibet 7,723
Kungur China 7,719
Tirich Mir Pakistan 7,690
Saser Kangri India 7,672
Makalu II Nepal 7,657
Minyan Konka China 7,590
Kula Kangri Bhutan 7,554
Chang-tzu Tibet 7,553
Muztagh Ata China 7,546
Skyang Kangri Kashmir 7,544
Communism Peak Tajikistan 7,495
Jongsong Peak Nepal 7,459
Poveda Peak Kyrgyzstan 7,439
Sia Kangri Kashmir 7,422
Haramosh peak Pakistan 7,397
Istoro Nal Pakistan 7,388
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