General Knowledge in Urdu-Mountains
Mass of land projecting well above its immediate surroundings is mountain. Plate tectonics has shown that mountains are the result of collisions between the plates which form the Earth’s form the Earth’s outer surface layer. Behind while safer rocks surrounding them are worn away. Also some mountains, especially isolated peaks have been elevated above their surroundings because; they are volcanoes, e.g., Mauna Loa in Hawaii or Mount Etna in Italy. There is no fixed boundary at which a hill is regarded as mountain. One criterion is that anything higher than 600 feet above sea level is a mountain but generally a feature is regarded as a mountain if it extends at least 3300 feet above the surrounding land.
Most mountains are groups or ranges. Individual mountains in a range are usually referred to as mounts e.g. Mount Wilson, Mount Everest etc.
Types of Mountains:
They arise because the rocks in them have been buckled and crumpled by pressure. Just as a table cloth when pushed along a table wrinkles up into folds, the rocks. Of the earths crust reacts to lateral pressure to form folds. If the pressure is very great, the folds are tightly squeezed into pleats. More pressure sends the pleats rolling over one another. As the pleats rollup, high elevations are formed. Only massive pressures like those resulting from colliding plates can fold and mould rocks into mountains. It is now believed that all big mountains like the Himalayas, the Andes (south America), the Rockies (North America and the Alps (Europe ) were formed by colliding plates. These are fairly young mountains and therefore are called new fold mountains. These have come into being after the continental drift started with the breakup of the supper continent, Pangaea. The old fold mountains were formed in the pr drift era long before the continental masses cave together to form Pangaea. The examples of the type are Aravallis of India, Pennies of Europe and Appalachians of America.
They came into being as a result of vertical earth movements along cracks or faults. Such movement is also cause by the pressure generated by plates. When such vertical earth movements leave a black of high elevation standing between two areas of low elevation, the high land area forms a black mountain. Such mountains are usually step side. Examples of the type are Vosges in France, the Black Forest Mountains in West Germany etc.
Volcanic mountains are the result of volcanic eruptions when a volcano erupts; the materials that are ejected fall around a hole or crater and build up a mountain. That is roughly conical in shape and has a crater at the top, the examples are; Fujiyama in Japan, Vesuvius in Italy and the Chimborazo and Cotopaxi in South America.
Residual mountains are those which are deeply dissected and reduced by weathering and river action that they stand out as skeletons, for example Catskill mountains of New York(USA)
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